The configuration and impact of these forces varied considerably in different times and places according to the goals of particular colonial projects and the capacities of colonial societies and institutions to pursue them.
Even in this case, though, it was not presented as a first option. Boarding schools have also been characterized as institutions of outright genocide on the grounds that the mortality rate from disease within boarding schools was very high and that boarding schools took children from Native groups and in this way prevented births within them.
Whether the annihilated survivors were 10, 30, or 50 percent of a pre-Columbian population would be irrelevant. The fact that the state government promoted aggressive settlement, undermined Indian land rights, and supported Indian-hunting militias strengthens the case.
Out of a population of 9, the death toll from all causes was probably around 15 percent. This approach, however, would work against my objective of facilitating an open-ended exploration of the issue, and so a formal discussion of definitions will be deferred to the historiographical section at the end of this essay, though, as the essay develops, it will pause periodically to consider how specific events or phases might or might not be regarded as genocidal depending on definitions that have been or could be applied to them.
One thing that happened is that Native populations did not recover or, to put it another way, were never allowed to recover.
However one resolves the question of genocide in American Indian history, it is important to recognize that European and U. Under a less strict, though still fairly conservative, definition requiring only settler intention to destroy a substantial portion of California Indians using a variety of means ranging from dispossession to systematic killing, genocide seems apt, especially since the demographic outcome in California was so catastrophic.
When it did its spread was closely connected to the British colonial project of exploiting existing indigenous practices of captive taking to create markets both for slaves outside Indian country and for European goods manufacturers, alcohol, clothing within it.
Over time, the trade encouraged consumption of alcohol, prostitution, and destruction of game, all forces that damaged Indian health and community well-being.
Between andthe Comanche population fell even farther—to a mere 1, On the other hand, the army did engage in punitive massacre in when it slaughtered sixty or more Pomos in the Bloody Island Massacre.
In some cases, however, troops were able to achieve surprise or break through Indian defenses, and, when they did, they showed little restraint, killing women, children, and older men. During the s, settlers enslaved California Indians especially childrenoverran their lands, and formed militias to hunt them down.
What decision is reached about this particular case, however, may not be of more than limited utility in resolving the broader question of genocide in American history.
Over the next few decades Comanches were repeatedly hit by epidemics, but because of generally favorable economic conditions, they were able to recover.
In the s, however, the anthropologist Henry Dobyns took account of disease to provide much higher estimates of 75 million for the hemisphere and 10—12 million north of Mexico. In many ways, the UN convention definition is quite broad, identifying multiple forces of destruction and requiring only partial destruction of a group.
Many writers see the massive depopulation of the indigenous population of the Americas after as a clear-cut case of the genocide. However, in the s malaria—a new disease—repeatedly struck Chinooks and Kalapuyas along the lower Columbia and Willamette Rivers.
Policymakers presented assimilation as a benevolent alternative to physical extinction, in this way providing a way for later historians to acquit them of genocidal intentions.
Army campaigns to subjugate Indian nations of the American West beginning in the s.
Congress appropriated money to support this and other militia campaigns, in some instances with knowledge of militia actions. As well, the state legislature and U. Indians might repulse a single invasion of their country or, if that was impossible, abandon their towns and rebuild, but because the United States had a large and growing population, a high capacity to continuously mobilize young men to fight, and an unwavering commitment to expansion, the nation was able to wage endless war.
A reported forty-three Potawatomis in a group of eight hundred died as they traveled from Indiana to Kansas, while sixty Wyandots, mostly young children, in a group of seven hundred died from disease shortly after their arrival in the West.
In many instances, U. A portion of this decline can be explained by war with Texas militias and the U. How would this be done?
By this time, however, the indigenous population of the major islands had been greatly reduced. In the California Indian population was probably aboutThe Americans fired indiscriminately, killing well over two hundred Indians, including noncombatants.
Sometime around the mids, however, as bison populations declined, leading to the collapse of the Comanche economy, so did the Comanche population.
They do not necessarily require direct sanction by state authorities; rather, they identify societal forces and actors. In the late s, however, Indians on dozens of reservations participated in a religion-based political movement known as the Ghost Dance.
Conservative definitions emphasize intentional actions and policies of governments that result in very large population losses, usually from direct killing.
More than many debates, those about genocide often center on definitions.In your essay, describe at least two DISTINCT periods where you see notable cultural change and discuss to what degree, if any, these shifts had lasting impacts on American society, politics, or history more generally.
Strains of Moynihan’s thinking ran through Bill Clinton’s presidency. “We cannot repair the American community and restore the American family until we provide the structure, the values, the discipline, and the reward that work gives,” President Clinton told a group of black church leaders in Memphis in To the extent, then, that the question of genocide and American Indian history centers or depends heavily on the question of the size and intentionality of disease-caused depopulation, the “no it was not genocide” position remains credible.
Crack: The Decade of American Destruction Essay Words | 7 Pages In the s, the United States has witnessed a scar that swept many Americans off their feet. Destruction of the American Dream in Death of a Salesman Essay Words | 5 Pages Commenting on the American Dream The American Dream is a set of ideals in which freedom includes the opportunity for prosperity and success.
The collapse of the Soviet Union created many fledgling democracies in central Europe. By Freedom House, an American think-tank, classified countries, or 63% of the world total, as democracies.Download